The Benefits of Getting Enough Vitamin D3
Why the sunshine vitamin is important
Vitamin D is important for overall health. You get it from the sun, foods you eat, or supplements. It comes in two main forms: D2 and D3.
If you have too little, you may problems with your bones, muscles, immune system, and mood. You could also have more inflammation and pain.
This article looks at vitamin D2 versus D3, the many benefits of vitamin D3, and how you can safely get more vitamin D into your diet.
Calcium is essential for bone health. Phosphate is needed for healthy bones, teeth, muscles, nerves, and basic bodily functions.
Vitamin D comes in two forms:
- Vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) is naturally found in some plants.
- Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) is naturally found in animals and is produced by the skin when it’s exposed to sunlight.
You can meet your vitamin D needs with either form. But healthcare providers generally suggest D3 supplements. That’s because it:
- Raises your overall vitamin D level more than D2
- Lasts longer in the body than D2
Vitamin D helps regulate calcium and phosphate absorption in food. Calcium and phosphate are essential for many important functions. For supplements, D3 is considered better than D2.
Vitamin D3 offers many health benefits. It:
- Strengthens bones and muscles
- Boosts immunity
- Improves mood
- Reduces inflammation
- Improves heart function
Vitamin D works with calcium to support your bones. If you’re low on vitamin D, your body can’t get calcium from food. So it steals it from your bones. This leads to:
The better your bone density, the less likely you are to develop diseases (like osteoporosis) that weaken bones.
Vitamin D appears to help you build stronger muscles. Studies suggest a link between muscle strength and high vitamin D levels.2
Researchers found people with more vitamin D had:
- Leaner bodies
- More muscle mass
- Better muscle function
Vitamin D is important for bone and muscle strength. It increases bone density and muscle mass. Low vitamin D puts you at risk for osteoporosis and other problems tied to weak bones.
Low vitamin D may put you at higher risk of catching COVID-19 and having severe symptoms.4 More research is needed to say for sure.
Low vitamin D levels may be linked to clinical depression.5 It’s not clear why, though. It may be that:
- Low vitamin D causes depression
- Or depression behaviors (e.g., poor eating habits, less time outside) cause low vitamin D
Evidence suggests raising vitamin D levels helps with depression symptoms. It may have a role in the depression treatment regimen. Larger studies are needed to understand the connection.
Vitamin D may help your immune system fight off some illnesses, including COVID-19. It may also help alleviate depression symptoms.
Vitamin D may affect medical conditions caused by inflammation. Low vitamin D may increase your odds of having:6
Studies have suggested taking vitamin D supplements during pregnancy makes babies less likely to have asthma.7 Always talk to your doctor before taking any supplements during pregnancy.
Research suggests a lack of vitamin D may increase your chances of:8
- Heart disease
- Blood pressure
- Heart attacks
D3 seems to reduce the risk of heart failure. It’s believed to improve heart function in people with weak heart muscles.9 Again, more research is needed.
Low vitamin D may lead to inflammatory diseases such as allergies and asthma. It may also increase your odds of heart disease and stroke.
Sources of D3
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) vitamin D recommendations are:
- 600 IU (international units) for adults up to age 70
- 800 IU per day for adults over 70
Most people can handle a maximum daily intake of 4,000 IU. You can increase your vitamin D levels by:
- Taking supplements
- Getting more sunlight
- Eating more foods with a lot of D3
It’s hard to get enough D3 through diet alone. Eating more of the foods below can help.
|Beef liver||42||3 oz.||5%|
|Cod liver oil||1,360||1 Tbsp.||170%|
|Egg yolks||44||1 yolk||6%|
|Fresh salmon||570||3 oz.||71%|
|Milk, fortified||120||1 cup||15%|
If you’re a vegetarian or vegan, it’s harder to get enough D3 from food. Supplements may be more important for you.
You can also boost your vitamin D with foods that contain D2.
|Almond, oat, or soy milk (fortified)||100-144||1 cup||13%-18%|
|Mushrooms (portabella)||4||.5 cup||1%|
Supplements are the easiest way to get enough vitamin D3 every day. Studies suggest they boost D3 just as well as sunlight and food.10
Talk to your doctor about the benefits and best dosage for you before you start taking supplements. Be sure you’re taking a high-quality product. The FDA doesn’t oversee supplements.
To find trusted brands, look for “USP Verified” on the label. That means the U.S. Pharmacopeial Convention (a nonprofit scientific organization) has verified that:
- Ingredients and potencies listed on the label are accurate
- The product doesn’t contain harmful levels of contaminants
- Your body can absorb the supplement
- The makers followed FDA guidelines and procedures
It may seem odd that sunlight can give you vitamin D. It doesn’t do this directly. But it starts a chain reaction.
- Ultraviolet B rays from the sun hit your skin.
- They activate special vitamin-D receptor cell.
- That triggers a chemical reaction that makes your cells produce vitamin D3.10
Getting a little sunlight every day can help you maintain your D3 levels. But it’s not the safest or most reliable way to stay healthy.
If you don’t get much sun, use sunscreen regularly, or have darker skin, you likely won’t meet your vitamin D needs from the sun.11
One concern is the risk of cancer from sunlight. Some experts recommend 10 to 15 minutes of unprotected exposure a few times a week to help with vitamin D levels.
But the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and other medical authorities say there’s no safe way to get vitamin D from the sun without increasing your skin cancer risk.12
The second problem is that it’s hard to rely on sunlight. And you can’t measure how much vitamin D you’re making from the sun. It’s easier to keep track of the vitamin D in foods or supplements.
The recommended day amount of vitamin D is 600 IU for adults under 70 and 800 IU for those over 70. Foods with high amounts include many kinds of fish and fortified milk and cereal.
Supplements are the most reliable way to maintain vitamin D levels.
Sunlight increases vitamin D production in your body. But it’s impossible to know how much it contributes.
Research shows more than a billion people worldwide have a vitamin D deficiency. Symptoms include:13
- Muscle weakness and aches
- Weak bones
- Hair loss
The deficiency may lead to many health conditions, such as:13
- Hypertension (high blood pressure)
A simple blood test can check your vitamin D levels. Your healthcare provider can order this as part of a regular check-up.
The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) doesn’t recommend routine vitamin D screening in adults without related symptoms.14 If you suspect a vitamin D deficiency, ask your healthcare provider to test your levels.
Vitamin D3 is generally safe. But it can have toxic effects if you take too much.
Too much vitamin D can make you absorb excessive amounts of calcium. That can lead to a condition called hypercalcemia, which may:
- Weaken bones
- Interfere with your brain and heart
- Cause kidney stones15
Vitamin D3 Toxicity
Some symptoms of vitamin D toxicity include:
- Muscle weakness
- Mood changes
- Loss of appetite
- Excessive urination
- Excessive thirst
Extremely high vitamin D3 levels can lead to:
- Kidney failure
- Irregular heartbeat
Toxicity problems are caused almost exclusively by supplements. It’s hard to take in that much from food. And your body doesn’t produce that much vitamin D from sunlight.
Vitamin D helps you absorb calcium and phosphate from food. D3 is more efficient than D2. You get vitamin D from food, supplements, and sunshine.
Vitamin D is important for bone and muscle strength and immune function. It may help prevent depression, inflammatory disease, and heart disorders.
Adults under 70 should get 600 IU a day. Older adults should get 800 IU. Supplements are the most reliable way to get enough vitamin D.
Taking too much can have toxic effects. Have your healthcare provider test your levels before starting a supplement.
A Word From Verywell
If you have health conditions that could be tied to vitamin D, bring it up with your healthcare provider. It’s easy to boost levels with supplements. And that could mean feeling a lot better and being healthier down the road.